Chicken Guinea is viral disease caused by chikungunya virus (CHIKV), an arbovirus of the genus Alphavirus (family Togaviridae). It is RNA positive – single stranded virus.
It is mosquito – borne disease because mosquito plays a vector role & when infected Aides mosquito bites to human it transmit virus into the blood. However it is non – contagious viral disease.
Chicken Guinea is a disease where there is increase number of mosquito prevailing in the environment. During monsoon when the mosquito increases their number, the risk & the outbreak of the disease increase. That’s why this disease is also called as monsoon disease.
It is a disease of tropical and subtropical regions that occurs epidemically. It was first discovered in Tanzania, Africa, in the early 1950.
There are three genotypes of this virus with a distinct genotype and antigenic character:
1 West African,
2 East/Central/South African, and
3 Asian genotypes.
Symptoms of Chicken Guinea
Incubation period 1 – 12 days (mostly 3 – 7 days).
A mistaken diagnosis is common.
The symptoms of Chicken Guinea are very similar to that of dengue or dengue fever.
⦁ High fever
⦁ Overwhelming tiredness
⦁ Pain and / or stiffness in the joints, General body pain, Muscle pain & Certain parts of the body which are in pain may also swell up
⦁ Nausea, vomiting , diarrhea
⦁ Ulcers in the mouth
⦁ Rashes on the body
Chicken Guinea is diagnosed by clinical, epidemiological, and laboratory tests.
Clinically, acute onset of high fever and severe joint pain and above described symptoms may indicate the Chicken Guinea.
Epidemiological criteria consist of whether the individual has traveled to or spent time in an area in which Chicken Guinea is present within the last twelve days (i.e. the potential incubation period).
Laboratory criteria : decreased lymphocyte count consistent with viremia. But definitive laboratory diagnosis can be analyzed through viral isolation, RT-PCR, or serological diagnosis.
Virus isolation provides the perfect diagnosis; it usually takes one to two weeks for completion and must be carried out in bio safety level III laboratories.
Serological diagnosis requires a larger amount of blood and uses an ELISA assay to measure Chicken Guinea – specific IgM levels in the blood serum.
The differential diagnosis may include infection with other mosquito-borne viruses, such as dengue or malaria, and infection with influenza.
Prevention from Chicken Guinea
The only and effective preventive measure is to cut population of mosquito.
Mosquito control by eliminating the standing water where mosquitoes’ lay eggs and develop as larva. If elimination of the standing water is not possible, insecticides or biological control agents can be added.
Methods of protection against contact with mosquitoes include using insect repellents with substances such as DEET, icaridin, PMD (p-menthane-3,8-diol, a substance derived from the lemon eucalyptus tree), or IR3535. This may cause resistant to viruses.
Protection by wearing bite-proof long sleeves and trousers, and garments can be helpful. Vaporized pyrethroids (such as in mosquito coils) are also insect repellents, but it has limited effect only during indoor hours.
At present there is no any anti viral treatment of Chicken Guinea.
Supportive therapy is recommended.
Anti pyretic, non – aspirin Analgesic, Anti inflammatory drugs may be used. Aspirin is not recommended due to the increased risk of bleeding, despite it’s anti-inflammatory effects.
Antimalarial drug Chloroquine Phosphate (250 mg/day) may be found effective in some cases.
Corticosteroids are not recommended during the acute phase of disease, as they may cause immunosuppression and worsen infection.
Passive immunotherapy has potential benefit in treatment of chicken guinea
Passive immunotherapy involves administration of anti-CHIKV hyperimmune human intravenous antibodies (immunoglobulins) to those exposed to a high risk of Chicken Guinea infection, though testing has shown several medications to be effective.